Neurobiology, 2003-04-03

Thu, 2003-04-03

Protokoll der Modulprüfung in Neurobiologie

Termin: 3.4.2003, 10.00 Uhr

Prüfer: Herr Brandt, Herr Hamann (Protokoll)

Fragen zu den neurobiologischen Grundlagen:

- Neurons are a special type of cells. What distinguishes them from other cells? (->
polarity, signal transduction, dendrite & axon) Which other cells are polar? (-> kidney
- What parts of a neuron do you know? (-> dendrite, soma, axon hillock, axon, terminal)
- What kind of channels are typical for the somatodendritic part? (-> ligand-gated ion
channels) What kind of channels are typical for the axon? (-> voltage-gated ion
- How is a signal transduced? On which parameters does the conduction velocity
depend? (-> diameter of the axon and myelination)
- What makes up the myelin sheath? What differences are there between the CNS and
the PNS?
- What kind of neurotransmitters doe you know? (-> most important: GABA (What
does it stand for? -> gamma-amino-butyric acid), glutamate, Ach, glycine) What are
the differences? (-> excitatory vs. inhibitory) Where do they occur? (-> the first two in
the CNS, the latter in the PNS) What are the molecular reasons for the excitatory or
inhibitory function? (-> different ions flow in or out of the cell, e.g. sodium or

Fragen zur Neuroanatomie (Spezialgebiet: Cerebellum, Basal ganglia, Cerebral Cortex)

- Macrostructure of the cerebellum: Show it on his model. Name folia.
- Microstructure of the cerebellum: How many layers does the cerebellum have? Which
cells are prominent in which layer? What structure corresponds to the arrangement of
the folia? (-> axons of the granule cells, that’s why they are called parallel fibers)
- Comparison to the structure of the cerebral cortex
- Input and output of the cerebellum
- Function of the cerebellum
- What are the Bergmann glia cells (astrocytes) in the cerebellum good for? (->
development of the cerebellum, migration of the granule cells)
- The basal ganglia are another part of the extrapyramidal system besides the
cerebellum. The extrapyramidal system is phylogenetically older than the pyramidal
system. Name all nuclei that belong to the basal ganglia and their location in the brain.
- Focus on substantia nigra: Why is it called “nigra”? (-> appears dark due to high iron
concentration) How do we know that it is involved in movement modulation? (-> e.g.
from neurological studies on patients with Parkinson)
- Focus on Parkinson: Characteristics and reasons of Parkinson? What could be the
reasons for the loss of dopaminergic neurons? (-> genetic defects? blocking of
dopamine precursor transporters?)

Allgemeine Bemerkungen:

- Zum Teil waren seine Fragen etwas verwirrend, weil er auf bestimmte Dinge hinaus
wollte. Man sollte zu seinen Einleitungen und Fragen immer die richtigen Stichworte
fallen lassen, dann reicht ihm das als Antwort. Er erwartet keine langen Monologe.
- Angenehme Atmosphäre
- Protokollant fragt nichts